Descolonizar o museu: exposição e mediação dos espólios africanos em museus europeus

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21814/rlec.3110

Palavras-chave:

curadoria partilhada, discurso museológico, exposição, museu colonial, museu pós-colonial

Resumo

Os primeiros museus surgiram na Europa, no contexto dos impérios coloniais e do pensamento hegemónico, assente nas teorias evolucionistas da época, tornando-se um instrumento ao serviço do poder dominante. O fim do colonialismo provocou uma rutura no modelo dos museus evolucionistas, trazendo para debate novas formas de interpretação, exposição e comunicação dos espólios provenientes de culturas não europeias. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar o fenómeno de descolonização do museu, partindo de uma análise diacrónica para abordar as questões relacionadas com a restituição dos objetos aos grupos culturais de origem e com a reformulação dos discursos museológicos, nomeadamente, através de projetos de curadoria partilhada. A investigação realizada é qualitativa, descritiva e conceptual, fundamentando-se na pesquisa bibliográfica e na análise crítica dos dados recolhidos, cujos resultados se estruturam em quatro pontos: os discursos colonialistas dos primeiros museus; debates pós-colonialistas; descolonização e restituição dos objetos aos grupos de origem; agentes e fatores da descolonização do museu na contemporaneidade. Como hipótese de investigação, sugere-se que a descolonização do museu é um processo em evolução e que se desenvolve através da recuperação do sentido original dos objetos e da representação das comunidades de origem, assegurando-lhes a integração das suas narrativas e a participação ativa e paritária nas práticas museológicas.

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Publicado

2020-12-29

Como Citar

Roque, M. I. (2020). Descolonizar o museu: exposição e mediação dos espólios africanos em museus europeus. Revista Lusófona De Estudos Culturais, 7(2), 53-71. https://doi.org/10.21814/rlec.3110